Recent improvements in mRNA and immunogenicity

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Abdul M. Gbaj

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Abstract :

Vaccines avoid many illnesses and save many lives every year. As a result of common vaccine use, the smallpox virus has entirely been eradicated and the occurrence of measles, polio and other childhood diseases have considerably been abridged around the world. Classical vaccine strategies, for instance inactivated pathogen, live attenuated and subunit vaccines, offer strong protection against diversity of hazardous diseases. In spite of this achievement, there remain chief obstacles to vaccine development against a diversity of infectious pathogens, part-icularly those better able to avoid the adaptive immune response. Furthermore, for most emer-ging virus vaccines, the main barrier is not the efficiency of usual approaches but the requirements for more rapid development and large-scale use. Nucleic acid therapeutics have appeared as hopeful option to classical vaccine approaches. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) is the intermediate step connecting the translation of protein-encoding DNA and the manufacturing of proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Global efforts have been taken to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccines since the initiation of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The mRNA vaccines (i.e., mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2) are the most commonly approved vaccines worldwide which are utilized in different clinical trials on a global scale [1]. More recent, a variety of mRNA vaccine platforms have recently been developed and validated [2]. Engineering of the RNA sequence has made synthetic mRNA further translatable than ever before. Exogenous mRNA is intrinsically immuno-stimulatory, as it is acknowledged by an assortment of cell surface, endosomal and cytosolic innate immune receptors

Keyword :

COVID-19, immune response, immunogenicity, mRNA, vaccine
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