Introduction: Incisional hernias of the abdominal wall are a frequently encountered complication in cases of open abdominal surgeries like midline laparotomies, caesarian sections etc. Wound infections, obesity, poor healing due to malnutrition etc., were thought to be the important causative factors in the development of incisional hernia.
Objective: To study the clinical profile of incisional hernia patients with respect to various etiological factors, distribution of cases in relation to age and sex, details of previous surgical procedures undergone.
Materials and Methods: 52 patients admitted in Department of General Surgery were included in the study. Study was conducted during the period from August 2018 to August 2020 including all patient with incisional hernia. Pediatric cases were excluded from the study. Data of all the patients were collected from the hospital records and were compiled in a predesignated proforma which included patient details, clinical examination, investigations, and previous surgical history. Informed consent was obtained from each patient.
Study Design: Retrospective observational study.
Results: There were 32 females (61.54%) and 20 males (38.46%) with female to male ratio was found to be 1.6:1. Majority of the patients presented with abdominal swelling (n=30, 58%) followed by both abdominal swelling and pain (n=20, 38%). Among the females now presented with incisional hernias the mean parity was 2.69. Majority of the cases developed hernias within 1 year (n=29, 55.77%) and about 26.93% of the patients developed hernia in 1 to 3 years. Most of cases of incisional hernia in our study occurred over midline (n=22, 42.3%) at the site of incisions made for midline laparotomy (n=20.38.5%) Risk factors favouring incisional hernia formation were post-operative wound infection (n=45, 84.9%) and obesity (n=21, 40.38%).
Conclusions: Incisional hernia is more common in females who undergo emergency midline laparotomy and emergency caesarean section. Majority of the cases presented within 1 year of surgery. Post-operative wound infection, obesity and anemia were the crucial factors for the development of incisional hernias.
Hernia, Incisional Hernia, Ventral Hernia