Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of nebulized dexmedetomidine, nebulized ketamine and combination of nebulised dexmedetomidine and ketamine for premedication in pediatric patients.
Materials and Methods: Total 75 children aged between 3-6 years, ASA grade I and II, posted for elective surgery were enrolled and divided into three equal groups. Group D was premedicated with nebulized dexmedetomidine (2mcg/kg), group K was premedicated with nebulized ketamine (2 mg/kg), and group DK was premedicated with combined nebulized dexmedetomidine and ketamine (1 mcg/kg 1 mg/kg). Primarily, patients were assessed for level of sedation, parental separation and mask acceptance at induction. Secondary assessments were hemodynamic parameters and immediate side effects if any.
Results : Studied groups were comparable as regards to demographic data and haemodynamic parameters. At all-time intervals except at 20 minutes, mean sedation scores were comparable among the three groups (p>0.05). At 20 minutes, group K had significantly higher sedation scores when compared to group D and group DK. The mean parental separation scores of group D, group DK and group K were 1.65 ± 0.48, 1.62 ± 0.49 and 1.37 ± 0.49 respectively, (p>0.05). The mean mask acceptance score of group D, group DK and group K were 1.73 ± 0.54, 1.73 ± 0.68 and 1.43 ± 0.66 respectively, (p>0.05). None of the patient had any immediate side effects.
Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (2mcg/kg), Ketamine (2mg/kg) and combination of Dexmedetomidine and Ketamine (1mcg/kg and 1mg/kg) as premedication via nebulisation route in pediatric patients is efficacious and safe. Combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine did not increase the success of premedication.
Premedication, Nebulization, Dexmedetomidine, Ketamine, Sedation, Induction