Background: The spleen is the largest organ in the mononuclear phagocytic system which plays a prominent role in systemic inflammation, hematopoietic disorders, and metabolic disturbances. Our limited understanding of the pathological processes in the spleen is due to the recent changing trends in the indications for splenectomy and the limited number of splenectomy specimens available for examination. Splenectomies are rarely performed for diagnostic purposes and are usually done as a therapeutic procedure.
The aim of the study is to analyse the etiological factors responsible for splenectomy and correlate factors such as age, sex and indications with macroscopic and histopathogical features in splenectomy specimens.
Materials and Methods: The present study is retrospective in nature and studies the histomorphological patterns in 68 splenectomy specimens received at the department of pathology at a single tertiary care center in Southern India.
Results: It was found that the male: female ratio was 1.4:1. The age of patients ranged from 6 to 75 years and the mean age was 37 years. Traumatic injury was found to be the most common indication for splenectomy (32.35%) followed by hypersplenism and portal hypertension. Congestive splenomegaly was the most common pathology in the specimens studied while a few rare incidental lesions were encountered.
Conclusion: This study reflects the current trends in the indications and surgical pathology of splenectomy specimens in a tertiary care teaching center.The indications for splenectomy correlated well with the histological findings.
Congestive splenomegaly, Histopathology, Spleen, Trauma.