Breath malodor is a social problem, and most patients complained about breath malodor in most countries. The etiological chain of breath malodor originated from the volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), gingival and periodontal diseases. When the threshold concentration, odor power, and volatility of the molecules increase in the expired air, it results in unpleasant breath odor. There are many tests to diagnose oral malodor, and the clinical management includes mechanical reduction of nutrients, clinical reduction of oral microorganisms, conversion, and masking of volatile sulfur compounds. When the dentist's treatment of oral malodor is not successful, then referral to the physician is warranted.
Breath odor, Halitosis, Microbiology, Volatile sulfur compounds