Implementation of use of hand-made three-dimensional models to teach Anatomy with supplement to traditional methods with limited resources

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Original Article

Author :

Bhadreshkumar P Vaghela*, Satish M Patel*

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Abstract :

The status of anatomical education in modern medical programs is a cornerstone of medicine. Anatomy is one of the basic subjects in First Year MBBS curriculum. Apart from important it is also a lengthy subject to complete in allocated time duration of First MBBS. There are various subdivisions of anatomy like gross anatomy, developmental anatomy, microscopic anatomy, genetics, surface anatomy, radiological anatomy etc. Out of which gross anatomy is difficult to understand as time constraint is there in duration of First MBBS. In medical and allied branches total hours allocated for anatomy teaching and laboratory practical hours have reduced. Result in triggered the emergence of innovative ideas to maximize students learning. While studying the gross anatomy three-dimensional orientation is must to learn actual structure and relation with other viscera and vessels. Traditional way of teaching anatomy uses wall charts, books, slides, anatomical specimens, and practical anatomy as teaching resources and methods. It is fact that in most institutes, three dimensional models are available in their Anatomy Museum, but many Anatomists have complained about fault in exact structure, labelling and it’s relationship in these models because sometime these models are made by amateur technicians. As the medical education expanded and the reduction in human anatomical specimens due to shortage of dead body donations, as well as the limitations of time, place and other resources for anatomical training, the quality of anatomy teaching has been seriously affected. Apart from shortage of these resources, another big issue with development of skill laboratory which is now mandatory as per new NMC guidelines. Establishment of skill lab requires ample amount of finance. Though, skill lab can provide excellent resources to meet the existing lacunae in teaching Anatomy to students by virtual media and simulations. Latest innovations in better teaching aids in Anatomy, in market virtual dissection table is available now, which can provide in depth understanding and orientation of three-dimensional body structures. But as mentioned above, the cost of this virtual dissection table is too high that every institute can not able to afford it. In this situation, to provide better understanding and three-dimensional orientation to students making hand made models from cheap and easily available materials are better options for teachers and students as they can make themselves.Anatomy is a discipline where spatial visualization is of importance. Even anatomy textbooks and atlases provide two-dimensional static anatomical illustrations. To teach some anatomical structures by traditional cadaveric dissection or by traditional lectures is difficult. Some of the structures like gross anatomy of urinary bladder or facial nerve anatomy are difficult to learn by textbook which cannot give exact perception of real anatomy. Additionally, many structure get distorted while removing from cadaver or not able to trace even. In some cases, specific models are also not available for instance course of facial nerve from origin to its termination where hand-made models give excellent three-dimensional understanding. For students’ proper anatomical knowledge of anatomy/organs help them to improve surgical skills. Finally, surgical outcome will be better with less morbidity and mortality.  

Keyword :

Anatomy, Teaching, Hand-made models, Traditional methods, Limited resources.
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