Context: IUGR is one of the most common pregnancy complications which substantially increase risk of adverse neonatal outcome. The sequelae of IUGR include stillbirth, neuro-developmental delay in childhood and high risk of diseases like hypertension, diabetes in adulthood. Therefore, IUGR in pregnancy warrants intensive antepartum fetal surveillance to ensure optimal perinatal outcome.
Aims: To evaluate the tests of antepartum fetal surveillance like AFI, BPS and Doppler ultrasound, alone and in combination for predicting adverse perinatal outcome in pregnancy with IUGR.
Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study done on 100 pregnant IUGR women > 34weeks of gestation, at a tertiary care centre in Karnataka, from June 2017 till December 2018. They were monitored by tests of fetal surveillance like Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI), Bio Physical score (BPS) and Doppler ultrasound. Tests done within 48 hours before labour and its relation to perinatal outcome were assessed. Continuous data such as age, height, weight were described by mean and standard deviation. The sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated for each test.
Results: The statistical difference between the normal and abnormal tests of antepartum fetal surveillance in relation to perinatal outcome was significant. Diagnostic accuracy of Doppler was 67%, BPS and AFI was 69%. In case of combination of findings of BPS and Doppler, the accuracy rose to 75%.
Conclusions: Biophysical profile was most reliable diagnostic method than Doppler in predicting adverse outcome. Sensitivity increased when BPS and Doppler was combined which is beneficial in predicting perinatal outcome.
Antepartum fetal surveillance, Doppler, Biophysical score, Amniotic fluid index, Perinatal outcome, IUGR