Periodontitis-affected root surfaces are hypermineralized and contaminated with cytotoxic and other biologically active substances. Chemical root conditioner are playing important role in decontaminating root surface as well as enlarge dentinal tubules into which healing connective tissue can enter. The various root conditioning agents used are citric acid, tetracycline, doxycycline, phosphoric acid, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid etc. The present study was aimed to compare the efficacy of citric acid as root conditioner with scaling and root planing scaling and root planing alone by observing the change in root surface under
SEM. For the present study 40 samples were obtained from 20 single rooted anterior teeth indicated for extraction having hopeless prognosis. The obtained samples are scaled and root planed properly then tooth root are divided in two parts and. One part of each root sample were treated with saline and other with citric acid. Scanning photomicrographs of the root surfaces were taken at 3000X. Photomicrography analysis of SEM samples revealed that removal of smear layer and opening of dentinal tubules was more in samples treated by citric acid with SRP than the SRP alone.