Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that the number of people diagnosed with Diabetes is 347 million worldwide. Diabetic macular edema (DME) and Diabetic Retinopathy are the main causes of vision loss in Diabetes mellitus.
Objective: To compare altered ocular blood flow by Doppler evaluation in middle aged type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic macular edema.
Materials and Methods: An analytical crossâ€“sectional study was conducted in the out-patient and in-patient department of ophthalmology and the department of radiodiagnosis in a tertiary care hospital including 36 patients in each group (A-with DME & B-without DME). Color doppler was done to evaluate ocular blood flow velocities in internal carotid, ophthalmic and central retinal arteries and central retinal vein.
Results: The majority of diabetes patients in developing countries are middle aged (45â€“64 years of age). Vascular changes and subsequent ocular hemodynamic changes are critical events in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Mean Resistivity Index (RI) and Mean Pulsatility Index (PI) in the ophthalmic artery were found to be significantly high in the DME group. Mean end diastolic velocity (EDV) in the common carotid artery was found to be significantly high in the NO DME group than the DME group. In our study, the mean values of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) (mg/dl) , Total cholesterol (mg/dl) , Serum urea (mg/dl), Serum creatinine (mg/dl) was found to be higher (Statistically significant) in the DME group as compared to NO DME group.
Conclusion: Our findings may indicate disturbances of retinal and choroidal circulation in patients with DME. Further studies with larger groups of patients are needed to understand better the role of retrobulbar hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of Diabetic macular edema.
Diabetic macular edema, Doppler evaluation, Ocular blood flow